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FREIGHT                                         57

conferences referred to in an earlier chapter. These rates of
freight are adjusted from time to time.

The master has a lien on all goods for freight due, but not
paid, and until these charges are paid he may retain cargo.
The consignee is not entitled to receive the goods until the
freight has been paid, and the shipowner is strictly not
entitled to his freight until he has delivered the cargo, unless
contract calls for freight in advance.

If the master delivers the cargo before payment of freight
he may lose his lien, therefore he is entitled to claim his
freight when he is ready to deliver.

Charter-party freight is fixed at an agreed rate for so much
per ton (1,015 or 1,016 kilos) or other trade measure. Here
there is no stipulation for weight or measurement cargo.

Charter-party freight is nearly always due on delivery
of the cargo, and when the contract is silent as to the time
for payment it is understood that freight is paid concur-
rently with delivery. The term ** Freight paid ton by ton
delivered/* must not be taken to mean what it literally says.
Here a total of the day's work and cargo discharged is
notified to the charterer who pays freight on that quantity.

Again, a carrier is not entitled to his freight until cargo is
delivered, and in the event of the ship not reaching its port
of discharge no freight may be claimed.

The shipowner is not entitled to doim projrata freight for
the part of the voyage he has carried the goods, but if the
ship does not complete the voyage, the master may make
arrangements to tranship the cargo to final port of discharge
and thus earn his freight, all charges for such transhipment
or forwarding being for his account.

There is an exception to this rule, however; if the con-
signee is notified that the ship has stopped short of its
destination, and voluntarily agrees with the shipowner to
take delivery at the intermediate port, then pro rota freight
would become chargeable.

Whenever disputes occur regarding the weight of cargo
carried, the person who requires the goods to be checked,
must pay costs of such check-weighing.